1. Walter A. Shewhart
of Modern Quality Control.
ii. Recognized the need to separate variation into
assignable and unassignable causes.
iii. Founder of the control chart.
Originator of the plan-do-check-act cycle.
v. Perhaps the first to
successfully integrate statistics, engineering, and economics.
quality in terms of objective and subjective
objective quality: quality of a thing
independent and subjective quality.
quality: quality relative to how people perceive it.
2. W. Edwards Deming
i. Studied under
Shewart at Bell Laboratories
* Well known
for helping Japanese companies apply Shewart’s statistical process
* Main contribution is his Fourteen Points to Quality.
The 14 points are:
1) Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of
product and service.
2) Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic
3) Cease dependence on mass inspection to achieve quality.
Constantly and forever improve the system.
5) Remove barriers.
7) Break down barriers between departments.
9) Eliminate work standards (quotas).
modern methods of supervision.
11) Institute modern methods of training.
12) Institute a program of education and retraining.
13) End the
practice of awarding business on price tag.
14) Put everybody in the company
to work to accomplish the transformation.
3. Joseph Juran
* Also well known for helping improve Japanese
* Directed most of his work at executives and the field of quality
* Developed the “Juran Trilogy” for managing quality:
Quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
Enlightened the world on the concept of the “vital few, trivial many” which is
the foundation of Pareto charts.
4. Philip Crosby
* Four absolutes of quality including:
Quality is defined by conformance to requirements.
2) System for causing
quality is prevention not appraisal.
3) Performance standards of zero
defects, not close enough.
4) Measurement of quality is the cost of
5. Arman Feigenbaum
i. Stressed a
systems approach to quality (all organizations must be focused on
ii. Costs of quality may be separated into costs for prevention,
appraisal, and failures (scrap, warranty, etc.)
6. Kaoru Ishikawa
concept of true and substitute quality characteristics
characteristics are the customer’s view
characteristics are the producer’s view
* Degree of match between true
and substitute ultimately determines customer
Advocate of the use of the 7 tools
iii. Advanced the use of quality circles
(worker quality teams)
iv. Developed the concept of Japanese Total Quality
* Quality first – not short term profits.
process is your customer.
* Use facts and data to make
* Respect for humanity as a management philosophy –
7. Genichi Taguchi
i. 1960s – 1980s
ii. Quality loss
function (deviation from target is a loss to society)
iii. Promoted the use
of parameter design (application of Design of experiments)
* Goal: develop products and processes that perform on
target with smallest
variation that are insensitive to environmental
* focus is on “engineering design”robust